The Dissertation Fellowship program constitutes a central part of the Center's agenda and has been in place since the early 1970s. Each year the Center hosts two dissertation scholars whose dissertations are in the area of Black Studies. This pre-doctoral program has always been successful, with at least 80% of the scholars having finished their dissertations and committed themselves to careers in research and teaching at various institutions throughout the country. We consistently have a strong pool of scholars who apply. While in residence, the Fellows teach one course in their area of expertise, participate in Colloquia, and interact with faculty, graduate, and undergraduate students. As a whole, the dissertation scholars have made great contributions to the intellectual life of the campus. It is unfortunate that not very many of them have been retained at UCSB. While our former fellows are tenured faculty, many of them Full Professors, and some department chairs at leading institutions such as the University of Wisconsin, Cornell, UCLA, Northwestern, and the University of Washington among other campuses, UCSB has only three of its former fellows on its faculty, a lecturer, an associate professor, and an assistant professor, all in the Department of Black Studies.
A few years ago, along with colleagues from Women's Studies and Chicano Studies, the Center for Black Studies put forth a proposal to the administration to try to retain on the UCSB faculty some of those superb scholars being trained for other institutions by our own dissertation fellowships. This proposal may have to be put on the table again, especially in light of the incentives offered by the Office of the President to hire junior faculty trained in particular disciplines which can enhance the diversity of the various UC campuses.
B -- The Congress of Santa Barbara
We consider it a major achievement that The Congress of Santa Barbara (KOSANBA) was created at UCSB in 1997 as a result of our work here at the Center. The group has pledged to institutionalize its efforts to further research the religion of Haiti and to disseminate its findings. The administrative site for the Congress of Santa Barbara is at the Center for Black Studies at UCSB.
The Association has over 70 members and is already planning its fourth and fifth meetings to be held respectively in Havana, Cuba in May 2003 and in Mirebalais in Haiti in June 2004. The first conference, "The Spirit and The Reality: Vodou and Haiti," took place at UCSB on April 25 and 26th 1997 and the second at Brooklyn College in New York City on April 3 and 4 1998. The third conference, "Ancestors and Progeny: Vodou and Haiti," was organized at Trinity College by the Department of Religion and International Studies in March 2000. The fourth gathering of the association was held conjointly with the 13th annual meeting of the Haitian Studies Association in Vermont in October 2001. The theme was "Vodou and Development." A book titled The Spirit and The Reality: Vodou and Haiti is completed and is in press with the University Press of Florida, a leading publisher in the area of Caribbean studies. A second volume also to be published under the auspices of the Center and the Congress of Santa Barbara is currently in progress. (see Congress of Santa Barbara for posters and photo album)
The following excerpt from its Declaration summarizes the goals and objectives of the organization (see Congress of Santa Barbara for entire declaration and by-laws):
The presence, role, and importance of Vodou in Haitian history, society, and culture are unarguable, and recognizably a part of the national ethos. The impact of the religion qua spiritual and intellectual disciplines on virtually all aspects of life is indisputable. It is the belief of the Congress that Vodou plays, and shall continue to play, a major role in the grand scheme of Haitian development and in the socio-economic, political, and cultural arenas. Development, when real and successful, always comes from the modernization of ancestral traditions, anchored in the rich cultural expressions of a people.
The Congress of Santa Barbara invites other Haitian scholars and non-Haitians who subscribe to its goals and objectives to join in the defense and illustration of this poto-mitan on the Haitian cultural heritage that is such an integral part of the nation's future.
The work of the Congress of Santa Barbara is part of the larger Indigenous Religion Project that the Center is developing. (see Summary of Research Highlights for more details).
C -- Colloquia and Presentations -- Slavery Conference, May 2002
The legacy of slavery continues to shape the nation's politics in ways that are not fully appreciated by a citizenry who would rather ignore its history in the vain hope that they might escape it. The U.S. is not alone in its reluctance to come to grips with this heritage -- so are the rest of the American nations. Most people in the U.S. are only dimly aware that slavery penetrated the Americas from the U.S. and Mexico to Argentina. Nor do they appreciate its historical significance in shaping the modern world. From twelve to fifteen million Africans came to the New World from the fifteenth to the late nineteenth centuries -- the greatest forced migration in modem times if not in human history. In fact, until the European migrations of the early twentieth century, more Africans came to the Americas than Europeans. The vast majority landed in the Caribbean and Brazil, and for this reason the conference starts with an examination of bondage in the nations to the south.
The system of forced African labor that developed from Barbados to Mexico was launched only after attempts to enslave Native Americans failed to produce the desired results. The next panels examine how slavery played a major role in shaping colonial and antebellum politics, economics, and society in the U.S. and beyond. Although a small percentage of the Diaspora slaves were brought to the thirteen colonies, they were a vital part of its economic life in the South and in Northern cities during colonial times; in the early nineteenth century, masters and slaves migrated into the new Southern states and western territories, thus increasing the political power of the pro-slavery faction. Indeed, until 1820, more Africans came to the U.S. than Europeans. Historians examine the literature on slavery, the institution during its founding, and its importance for the political and economic development of the colonies, the nation, and Great Britain. Because generally the number of female slaves was proportionally high in the U.S. compared to the Caribbean, the effects of the institution upon slave women, their life, and labor is the subject of another panel.
The slaves' fate and future were the special concern of the national government after the Twelfth Amendment emancipated them. As the government's commitment waned, Jim Southerners passed Jim Crow laws and Northerners accepted racial discrimination as normal not only in Dixie, but as the custom in states from New York to California. This nadir in race relations thwarted most African Americans' attempts to participate in the political process and to prosper economically. Panelists will discuss the national dimensions of racism and discrimination and their effects upon the larger world to reveal how the heritage of slavery shaped U.S. society well into the twentieth century and beyond.
In recent years these various injustices and the lingering effects of slavery itself motivated civil rights organizations and legislators to try to focus the nation's attention on the issue of reparations for the descendants of slaves. In California, SB 2199 and 1737 were passed to address these issues in 2000. The question of reparations is the subject of the last panel. The numerous precedents and the international dimensions of this controversial issue will be examined along with the specific U.S. ramifications. On the last day, the availability of web sites on slavery materials and the question of how to introduce this material into the schools will be addressed, to be followed by an open forum in which members of the audience and from the community can speak.
2. CONFERENCE REPORT: Legacy of Slavery: Unequal Exchange
This conference results from the passage of Senate Bills 2199 and 1737 in 2000 and is meant to address a number of issues &emdash; the economic and political legacy of slavery, the roles of governments and businesses in this enterprise, and the question of reparations for the descendants of slaves. It begins with slavery in the Caribbean and Latin America because an examination of the broader picture is necessary for understanding its history in the U.S. Slavery in this country was like slavery throughout the New World in that it was based on race &emdash; Africans, New World Blacks, and Native Americans were assumed to be slaves and were brutalized accordingly. The U.S. has a well-known historical tradition associated with freedom and democracy, and then another less studied based upon the enslavement and exploitation of peoples of color for the political and economic benefits of its master class. It has never come to grips with this contradiction, nor have the government or businesses admitted involvement in any crimes against humanity.
Recognition of the significance of slavery in U.S. history requires rethinking and rewriting the nation's history, not to mention identifying those who were actors and beneficiaries in the enslavement of millions. For example, if demographics are significant, African captives bound for the thirteen mainland colonies (later the U.S.) exceeded the number of European migrants until 1820, and the same is true for the Americas &emdash; the imported Africans outnumbered European immigrants until the end of the nineteenth century. Slavery was supported by the U.S. constitution; though the word is never used in that document, the institution was solidified in articles protecting the slave trade and ensuring that private property would be protected. The industrial revolution was fueled by the expansion of the cotton South, a region dominated economically by Northern business interests. Three Reconstruction amendments &emdash; the 13th, 14th and 15th &emdash; to the Constitution settled the issue of slavery and its expansion and, furthermore, stood as testimony of the permanent influence of the institution on the U.S. political system.
While we are told of the singular importance of the U.S. revolution against Great Britain, equally significant was the slave revolt in Haiti in 1791 that threatened slave owners' interests in the U.S., resulting in the isolation and ostracism of that nation for years. Outside the U.S., however, the first successful slave revolt in human history created a nation where citizens were by definition Black and slavery was prohibited. Moreover, the Haitians inspired and fomented revolutions in South American nations. In its own unique way, in the nineteenth century, Haiti assumed the role of Cuba in the late twentieth century in terms of spreading a new ideology that posed a threat to U.S. interests.
Despite the Reconstruction amendments, by the end of the nineteenth century new and continuous barriers -- legal racial discrimination and white racism -- thwarted the efforts of the nation to heal its wounds and treat all citizens equally; and, despite the gains of the Civil Rights Movement in the last century, today most Black children in the U.S. live in poverty, and many Black men are enmeshed in the legal and prison systems. In a democracy that treasures freedom of speech and of the press and the right to assembly, these issues must be brought out into the light and discussed in a reasonable fashion. The Legacy of Slavery Conference is a step in that direction, an attempt to open up the debate on subjects that are not only controversial and of considerable historical interest, but which have serious implications for the nation's future.
Douglas Daniels, UCSB
Henry Yang, Chancellor, UCSB
France Córdova, Vice Chancellor for Research, UCSB
Edward Donnerstein, Dean of Social Sciences, UCSB
Shirley Kennedy, UCSB
Slavery and Freedom in the Caribbean and Latin America
Moderator: Jacqueline Bobo, UC Santa Barbara
Commentator: Robert Hill, UCLA
Patrick Bellegarde-Smith, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
The Fire This Time: Global Implications of the Haitian Revolution, 1791-1806
Patricia Penn Hilden, UC Berkeley
Hunting North American Indians in Barbados
Andrew B. Fisher, UC San Diego
Beyond Slavery: Afromestizos, Indians and Identity in Colonial Western Mexico
Slavery in North America
Moderator: Anna Everett, UC Santa Barbara
Commentator: Douglas H. Daniels, UC Santa Barbara
Frederick C. Knight, University of Virginia
In an Ocean of Blue: The Uneven Legacies of Colonial South Carolina Indigo Plantations
Thelma Foote, UC Irvine
Separate but Equal for Masters and Slaves: Apartheid Logic Historiography in the U.S.
Mark Mack, Howard University
A Mirror Into the Past: The Biological Effects of Enslavement on the Ancestors of the African Burial Ground
Slavery and Development
Moderator: Christopher Parker, UC Santa Barbara
Commentator: Christopher McAuley, UC Santa Barbara
Joseph Inikori, University of Rochester
The Atlantic World Slave Economy and the Development Process in England, 1650-1850
Paul Finkelman, University of Tulsa, College of Law
Affirmative Action for the Master Class: Understanding the Proslavery
Constitution and Its Impact on American Politics
David Horne, California State University, Northridge
Profits From Slave Breeding in America
Discussion & Questions
KEYNOTE SPEAKER : Leon Litwack, UC Berkeley
Trouble in Mind: African Americans From Emancipation to the 1990s
Reception Remarks :
lene Nagel, Executive Vice Chancellor, UCSB
Ray Huerta, Affirmative Action Coordinator, UCSB
Babatunde Folayemi, Santa Barbara City Council
Hannah Beth Jackson, Assembly, CA State Legislature
Life and Labor Among Enslaved Women
Moderator: Florence Bellande-Robertson, Multicultural Women's
Commentator: Helen Pyne-Timothy, UC Santa Barbara
Brenda Stevenson, UCLA
The Lives and Labor of Slave Women
Jayne Boisvert, Russell Sage College
Haiti's Colonial Past: Female Resistance in Saint Domingue
Rebecca Hall, UC Santa Cruz
Not Killing Me Softly: African American Women, Slave Revolts, and Historical Constructions of Racialized Gender
Suzette Spencer, UC Berkeley
What Manner of Love is This on the Edge of Monticello?: Dashing Tom, Dusky Sally, and Contemporary Discourses of Plantation 'Romance'
Racism and Discrimination After Emancipation
Moderator: Michael Brown, UC Santa Barbara
Commentator: Eileen Boris, UC Santa Barbara
Brenda Plummer, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Inter-Ocean: International Protest and the Legacy of Slavery
Richard F. America, Georgetown University
Income and Wealth Transfer Effects of Discrimination
Marcus Alexis, Stanford University
African-American Economic Performance: A Fifty year Report Card
Reginald Daniel, UC Santa Barbara
White Into Black: The Politics of Race and Identity in Contemporary Brazil
Moderator: James Noel, San Francisco Theological Seminary
Comments: Audience Participation
Howard Dodson, Schomburg Center for Research
What Price Slavery? What Price Freedom?
Gerald C. Horne, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Race for Power: Seeking Reparations and the Global Correlation of Forces
Leslie Tick and Natasha Ray, Senior Staff Counsels, State of
Department of Insurance
The Mandate: Senate Bill 2199
Adjoa A. Aiyetoro, Chair, Legal Strategies Commission & Chief Counsel, National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N'COBRA); Legal Scholar, American University
Reparations: Repairing the Consequences of Slavery and the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Discussion & Questions
Reception and Village Meeting sponsored by EPCA & Student Organizations
Joan Walker Scott, Director
Education Program for Culture Awareness
Teaching Social Justice --
Session with teachers from the Santa Barbara School District
Moderator: Nicole Williams, UC Santa Barbara
Commentator: Judith Green, UC Santa Barbara
Report on the Middle Passage Curriculum, Center for Black Studies
Juanita Johnson, Oranne Hilgerman, Shannon Sheets, El Rancho School
Presentation from The Center for Teaching for Social Justice, Gevirtz Graduate School of Education
Tony Jackson, Santa Barbara High School
Maritza Avila, Blackstock Middle School
Ralph Cordova, UCSB & La Patera
Sylvia Curtis, UCSB
Historical Documentation on the Web: Digitizing Local Collections
Rapporteur: Charles H. Long, Emeritus, University of Chicago and
UC, Santa Barbara
Reflections on the Legacy of Slavery and Implications for the 21st Century
OPEN FORUM: Discussion and Closing Comments
The University of California, Office of the President,
The University of California, Santa Barbara,
Office of the Chancellor,
Office of the Executive Vice Chancellor,
Office of Research, Office of the Vice Chancellor, Student Affairs,
Affirmative Action Office,
Education Program for Culture Awareness,
Department of Black Studies,
Center for the Teaching of Social Justice,
Combined Black Studies Funds, and
Building Bridges Community Coalition
Convener: Douglas H. Daniels
Jacqueline Bobo, Shirley Kennedy, Claudine Michel, Helen Pyne-Timothy, Joan Walker Scott, James Smith
Student Organization Co-Sponsors (partial list):
Akanke o Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority o Alpha Phi Sorority o Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity o Asian Resource Center o Black Graduation Committee o Black Pioneers Renaissance Organization o Delta Sigma Theta Sorority o El Congreso o Kapatpirang Pilipino o Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity o Men Against Rape o Multi Ethnic Student Outreach o Pilipino Graduation Committee o Skyline o Twin Goal(s) Student Coalitiono Zeta Phi Rho Fraternity
Professor Shirley Kennedy
who had the vision for the three components of this project, the Henrietta Marie Exhibit, the Middle Passage Curriculum, and this Legacy of Slavery Conference.
Professor Claudine Michel, whose leadership made these projects a reality.
Our Graditude to Professor Ines Talamantez, for her assistance.
Also to: Mahsheed Ayoub, Business Officer; Irene Jones,
Publication Office; and Jake Wires, Webmaster
Art Work & Design: Steve Brown, Irene Jones, Claudine Michel, James Smith
5. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS
ADJOA A. AIYETORO, an adjunct professor at Washington College of Law, American University, serves as the Chair for the Legal Strategies Commission and Chief Counsel, National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N'COBRA), as a co-spokesperson of the Reparations Coordinating Committee, and also Vice Chairperson of the Board of Directors of the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty (NCADP).
MARCUS ALEXIS, a member of the Board of Trustees and Professor of Economics at Northwestern University, currently is a Visiting Professor of Economics at Stanford University. His publications include Assessing 50 Years of African-American Economic Status, 1940-1990, and Diversity, Conflict and State Politics, University of Illinois Press.
RICHARD F. AMERICA, an economist and graduate of Georgetown University's School of Business; is an Executive Professional Lecturer and Director of Community Reinvestment. His publications include Paying the Social Debt: What White America Owes Black America; The Wealth of Races: The Present Value of the Benefits of Past Injustice.
PATRICK BELLEGARDE-SMITH is a professor of Africology, at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is the author of several books and articles on Haiti, including Neo-African Religions in the Americas: The Spirit, the Myth, the Reality: Voudou in Haitian Development; Haiti: The Breached Citadel; In the Shadow of Powers: Dantes Bellegarde in Haitian Social Thought; Resisting Freedom: Cultural Factors in Democracy
JAYNE BOISVERT is an assistant professor of French and Comparative Literature at Russell Sage College in Troy, NY. She obtained a master's degree in French Language and Literature from Boston College and holds a doctorate in French Studies at the University at Albany. Dr. Boisvert has published articles on Haiti as well as French film.
SYLVIA CURTIS is the Black Studies and Dance librarian at University of California, Santa Barbara. She served as past president of the Librarian Association of the University of California and is active with social justice projects in the Santa Barbara community.
G. REGINALD DANIEL, Assistant Professor with the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, is the author of More Than Black? Multiracial Identity and the New Racial Order (Temple University Press, 2001) and Converging Paths: Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (Altamira Press, A Division of Rowan Littlefield, in progress).
HOWARD DODSON, Chief of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of The New York Public Library since 1984, holds an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters with Widener University. He has been a consultant in the Office of the Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities in Washington, DC, Executive Director of the Institute of the Black World in Atlanta, GA, and an instructor at California State College at Hayward, Emory University, Shaw University, the City University of New York, and Columbia University. His most recent publication is The Black New Yorkers: The Schomburg Illustrated Chronology (1999).
PAUL FINKELMAN is Chapman Distinguished Professor at the University of Tulsa School of Law. He has published more than a dozen books and numerous articles on law and American slavery and currently is working on a history of the fugitive slave laws in America. His publications include A March of Liberty, A Constitutional History of the United States; Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson; An Imperfect Union: Slavery, Federalism, and Comity; Impeachable Offenses: A Documentary History from 1787 to the Present; American Legal History: Cases and Materials; and Baseball and the American Legal Mind.
ANDREW B. FISHER will graduate in June with a doctorate in history from the University of California, San Diego. He is the recipient of numerous fellowships, including the UC President's Postdoctoral Fellowship at UCLA, and the UC President's Dissertation Fellowship.
THELMA FOOTE is an Associate Professor for History and African-American Studies at the University of California, Irvine. Her publications include Black and White Manhattan: Race Relations and Collective Identity in Colonial Society, 1626-1783 (forthcoming); and Crossroads or Settlement?: The Freedmen's Community in Historic Greenwich Village, 1644-1844.
REBECCA HALL holds a law degree from Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California Berkeley and has been affiliated with the Berkeley Community Law Center, creating and supervising its Homelessness Prevention Project. She currently is completing a doctorate in history at the University of California at Santa Cruz.
PATRICIA PENN HILDEN is a Professor of Native American Studies and Comparative Ethnic Studies in the Department of Ethnic Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. She has published When Nickels Were Indians. Her other upcoming publications are From the Red Zone: Critical Perspectives on Race, under submission at Stanford University Press, and Racing the West.
DAVID HORNE, Graduate Faculty, Public Policy Method and Analysis, Program in Public Administration, California State University, Northridge, is Editor for The Journal of African Studies, and The Journal of Pan African Studies. His publications include The State of the Race: A 21st Century Analysis of Black Americans. He currently is working on a series of articles concerning Slave Breeding in American History.
GERALD C. HORNE is a Professor with the Department of History Communications Studies and African/Afro-American Studies at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. His publications include From the Barrel of a Gun: The U.S. and the War Against Zimbabwe, 1965-1980; Race Woman: The Lives of Shirley Graham DuBois; Class Struggle in Hollywood: Moguls, Mobsters, Stars, Reds and Trade Unionists, 1930-1950; and Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s.
JOSEPH INIKORI is a professor of History at the University of Rochester. His research focuses on economics, with a specialization in international trade and economic development. Educated in Nigeria and England, he has held faculty positions at the University of Ibadan and was formerly the Chair of History at Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Nigeria. His publications include, Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade and Economic Development, Cambridge University Press, 2002; and The Chaining of a Continent: Export Demand for Captives and the History of Africa South of the Sahara, 1450-1870 ,1992.
FREDERICK C. KNIGHT is presently completing post-doctoral research and teaching at the Carter G. Woodson Institute for Afro-American and African Studies at the University of Virginia. He is also on the faculty of the History Department at the University of Memphis and currently working on a manuscript titled, Seeds of Change: West African Workers and the Making of the British Americas, 1650-1850.
LEON F. LITWACK, a Pulitzer Prize winner, is Morrison Professor of History at the University of California at Berkeley. His many publications include Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century (Co-editor); Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America (Co-author); Hellhound on My Trail: Race Relations in the South from Reconstruction to the Civil Rights Movement; Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery; and North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860.
CHARLES H. LONG served as Director of the Center for Black Studies and Professor of History of Religions at the University of California&endash;Santa Barbara from 1991 until he retired in 1996. He has held faculty positions at the University of Chicago, the University of North Carolina, Duke University, and Syracuse, where he also was Director of the Humanities Doctoral Program. His publications include Alpha: The Myths of Creations, Myths and Symbols: Essays in Honor of Mircea Eliade and the Significations: Signs, Symbols and Images in the Study of Religion.
MARK MACK, a Laboratory Director of the African Burial Ground Project and Instructor in Biological Anthropology at Howard University, is currently a doctoral candidate in biological anthropology at the University of Florida. He has conducted research on human adaptation to coastal environments, skeletal biology, paleopathology, social impacts upon health, and the biological health status of members of the African Diaspora, in such places as Rome, Italy, the Sultanate of Oman, the Bahamas, St. Augustine, Florida, Jamaica and New York City at the African Burial Ground.
BRENDA PLUMMER, University of Wisconsin-Madison, received the 1998 Myrna Bernath Prize awarded by the Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations for her book, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935-1960. Other publications include Haiti and the Great Powers, 1902-1915 (1988), and Haiti: The Psychological Moment (1992).
NATASHA R. RAY, Senior Staff Counsel and Public Advisor, California Department of Insurance since 1992, is a graduate of the University of California School of Law at Los Angeles. Ms. Ray practiced bankruptcy and civil law for a number of years before joining the Department of Insurance in 1992.
SUZETTE SPENCER is a PH.D candidate at the University of California, Berkeley, where she is completing a dissertation about maroonage in African American and Caribbean literatures. She is this year's Center for Black Studies Dissertation Scholar. Her publications center on Black women, African Diaspora literatures and slavery.
BRENDA STEVENSON, Professor and Chair of the History Department at the University of California at Los Angeles. Her numerous publications include From Bondage to Freedom: Slavery in America Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South Gender Convention, Ideals and Identity Among Antebellum Virginia Slave Women; Black Family Structure in Colonial and Antebellum Virginia: Amending The Revisionists Slave Family and Housing: In Ted Ownby Abolition; and Abolition.
LESLIE TICK, Senior Staff Counsel, California Department of Insurance, holds a law degree from the Golden Gate University School of Law. She has served as an administrative law judge at the San Francisco Rent Board and at the California Department of Social Services and is in the process of collecting information related to slavery era insurance policies.
MARITZA AVILA, Blackstock Middle School
RALPH CORDOVA, UCSB & La Patera
ORANNE HILGERMAN, El Rancho School
TONY JACKSON, Santa Barbara High School
JUANITA JOHNSON, El Rancho School
SHANNON SHEETS, El Rancho School
D -- Lectures
Spring 2002 -- Lectures held at the Center for Black Studies
Jarita C. Holbrook, Ph.D., University of Arizona, April 1,
"African Astronomy to Celestial Navigation: Studies in Science, Technology, and Culture"
Gerald Horne, Ph.D., University of North Carolina, April 5,
"The Black Pacific: African-Americans and Japan Confront White Supremacy"
Ingrid Banks, Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute, April
"False Consciousness of Black Culture Products? Hair, Identity, Politics, and African-American Women"
Michele Berger, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas,
April 9, 2002
"Workable Sisterhood: The Political Journey of Stigmatized Women with HIV/Aids"
Lectures at the UCSB Women's Center by Dissertation Fellows
Suzette Spencer, April 4, 2002
"A Civil Ambush Flipping the Panotophilic Script OR
Drama on the Steps of the White House: Mary Todd Lincoln, Elizabeth Keckley, and Panoptic Economies of Visibility Behind the Scene"
Boulou de B'Beri, May 21, 2002
"The Semio-pragmatic of the Image: An Analysis of African Traditional Knowledge through 14-Still Images of Vodou"
E -- Co-sponsored Activities
F -- Community Activities
1. THE HENRIETTA MARIE PROJECT
(Submitted by Shirley Kennedy)
When the Henrietta Marie Project was conceived and initiated four years ago, it was always envisioned as a project whose purpose was to do more than commemorate the evil deeds of the past, or to recount the brutal and inhuman practices which marked that notorious commerce. An integral and essential facet of the intellectual context was the presentation of "The Legacy of Slavery: An Unequal Exchange", an academic conference of outstanding scholars and researchers, which is addressed elsewhere in this report.
The aid of the entire community was enlisted, from the grassroots to the highest echelons of elected officials. The county of Santa Barbara, the city of Santa Barbara, and the new city of Goleta, all proclaimed 2002 " the Year of the Henrietta Marie". School districts, the faith community, the business and philanthropic communities, clubs and organizations of all types, joined together to create the context. The exhibit itself was marvelously interactive, and it was seen as a catalyst in which to engage the entire community; teachers, parents, school children, and the general public. Planning for the exhibit began with the schools and with teachers on all levels, and appropriately so. An energetic outreach was made to encompass many diverse communities and to build a sense of "ownership" within them. Especially rewarding were partnerships developed with UCSB Davidson Library, and the Gervirtz Graduate School in Education. The Gervirtz team has been researching the teaching of social justice to children for more than a decade, and it generously shared knowledge gained with our docents and with teachers who classes visited the exhibition. Its research, which focuses on "preparing the mind" fits perfecting into the mission and purpose of Building Bridges Community Coalition and the Henrietta Marie Project. There is no denying that slavery was an ugly chapter in our history, and is a difficult, and often painful, subject to teach. The Teaching For Social Justice concepts gave teachers and children tools to cope, without glossing over this dark side of our history. Its intent is to empower children by awakening their innate sense of justice, their knowledge of their own power to effect social change, and of their own ability to challenge wrongs and injustice. The focus was on positive approaches to effecting social change, and on one's own responsibility to do that. Davidson Library provided valuable resources on-line, which resulted in a remarkably teacher-friendly exhibit, as well as one sensitive to curriculum standards &endash; a major concern of teachers, school administrators, and parents.
During the seven weeks that the exhibit was open, approximately 3,500 students from school districts all over the county toured the exhibit. In addition students from private schools, the home-schooled, and a few from outside the county, were made welcome. A special invitation was issued to 5th graders because that is the year slavery is taught in the California curriculum. Fifty schools accepted that invitation. Docent-led tours for school children were conducted from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. Monday through Friday. The exhibit was also open to the public seven days a week with docent-led tours conducted daily at regular hours. More than 125 clubs, organizations and churches arranged for special guided tours, and over 3,000 walk-ins were counted, for a total of more than 7,000 visitors. It is difficult to estimate the total number of people who were touched by the exhibit in some way, either as participants or by attending some event, but it could be upwards of 15 to 20,000 visitors.
Docent training classes were limited to 15 members, and 150 docents were trained for regular shifts and for back-up duty. Dr. Madeleine Burnside, Curator of the exhibit, author of the book Spirits of Passage, and Executive Director of the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society, flew to Santa Barbara from Key West, Florida to conduct the training classes. Another dozen or more volunteers operated the gift shop and provided other services to keep the exhibit running smoothly. Letters to newspapers and comments in the guest book were overwhelmingly positive. We are still hearing from people who were moved by it.
One of our concerns in planning for "Henrietta Marie" was how to fulfill the goals of the exhibit to teach the truth about history, and yet to make the experience one of hope and not division, of healing and not of hate. We have a duty to tell children the truth about the realities of life, yet we do not want to send messages of fear and despair. Every tour ended with an acknowledgement that, although cruelty and injustice exist in the world, all of us have a choice not to participate in that behavior, and that we all have the power to challenge it where we see it. The children were then invited to write a promise of what they can do themselves to challenge wrongs they see in their own world. That message of empowerment enables the tour to end on a positive note and to leave the children with some understanding of the factors that fuel hate, as well as the knowledge that they can be part of resisting it. Photos of the wall with the children's promises are included in this report and also examples of the very moving words they have written about their experience with the exhibit.
Another exciting development that came out of the Gervirtz partnership is the "virtual tour" that took place between Santa Barbara students and their peers in another city. Our local students conducted an interactive video tour of the Henrietta Marie for their counterparts in Sacramento. Later the Sacramento students reciprocated with a similar tour on the topic of immigration. A video was produced of the event, one of the four that were produced on various aspects of the exhibit. More developments are yet to come, including scholarly publications, journal articles, and a book to be published by the Center.
Responses from both the public and from teachers and students were good. Teachers were asked to fill out an evaluation form, and examples of that instrument are also in this report. The organizers are most pleased to receive the highest accolade from Dr. Madeleine Burnside, and would like to share a quote from her letter. Dr. Burnside wrote "This is definitely our best site ever, and we have had some great ones. I was so impressed by your outreach to the entire community."
We believe that hate is learned behavior, and that by our actions, we teach children what we value, and what is, and what is not, acceptable behavior. We believe that experiences like that of the Henrietta Marie will remain with these young people, will provide them with choices, and will, it is to be hoped, influence them toward wise choices.
"In her brief life as slaver, the Henrietta Marie brought great wealth to a few and great misery to many. But after her untimely death, and remarkable resurrection, she has the opportunity to atone for her past sins by enlightening millions with her story of struggle and survival. Just as a ship leaves a wake which laps upon many shores, so now may the slave ship awaken many to hear an era."
Charles Stuart McGehee
2. DIGITAL DIVIDE PROGRAM
Using the subtitle, "Myth or Reality?" the local Digital Divide program offered informed opinions as to its meaning and validity and was an especially appropriate topic drawn from different segments of the population to represent a broad spectrum of views. It included four women, one male, an undergraduate student, a high school teacher, a staff member, a professor, and a director of an advocacy organization, representing three minorities (four if the gay population is included in the term), African American, Latina, and Native American. The mix made for a lively discussion.
The format was designed for flexibility. Speaker David Bolt, filmmaker and executive producer and co-founder of Studio Miramir, presented clips from his documentary, and an update on recent developments, focusing on challenges to conventional wisdom and his response to those challenges. Briefly, although the picture has changed markedly in terms of minority penetration, Bolt contends that this penetration tends to be concentrated in the consumer aspect of technology. In other aspects of participation, e.g. design, policy making, and ownership, minority participation still lags behind that of majority populations. Panelists responded to the speaker with individual statements and then to each other in open discussion. Panelists tended to concur in the opinion that minorities continue to lag, offering an even more dismal picture of a dearth &endash; an almost complete absence of the technology on Indian reservations. Clearly, educators have a long way to go to address the inequity of information and technology in our society. The question period elicited more comments than questions. However, those who came expressed the opinion that it was a valuable exchange. As the last in a series of more than 20 contextual events presented in conjunction with the Henrietta Marie Exhibit, it was well received and educational.
David Bolt, the recipient of several awards for his community work, including the Robert Townsend Award for Social Justice, the Invision Award for Multimedia and two Cine Gold Eagle Awards, was most generous with his time, speaking to a Film Studies class and later meeting informally in the Black Studies Department with students who wanted to talk with him. The event was co-sponsored by the Office of Academic Programs, the Center for Technology and Society, The Center for Black Studies, The Center for Chicano Studies, Women's Studies Program, Department of Chicano Studies, Department of Black Studies, and Film Studies.
3. COMMUNITY OUTREACH PROGRAM
The Academic work of the Center for Black Studies is well known and highly respected. The Center's contribution to the intellectual life and reputation of UCSB has traveled beyond its walls, through the work, the research, and the publications of its Fellows and its faculty associates. One component of its work that is less well known is the Center's community outreach. Below is a brief outline of some of the Center's past and current intramural and extramural involvements.
Thanks to the continued efforts of our Coordinator for Cultural and Community Affairs, Dr. Shirley Kennedy, we have re-established a strong presence in the community. Her active leadership with the Building Bridges committee is a fine example of her efforts. Dr. Kennedy promotes outreach to the campus and community, acts as a liaison and a clearinghouse for information, and initiates special events and projects. Often these endeavors are collaborative in nature and serve to connect the Center to the campus and the campus to the community. The Center for Black Studies realizes the important role that an institution such as UCSB plays in the surrounding community, and therefore recognizes its own role in taking leadership and assuming that responsibility.
The Center for Black Studies through Dr. Kennedy, who is also co-chair of the Building Bridges committee, co-sponsored a number of events in the community throughout the year. The following organizations are part of the coalition of Building Bridges: the Center for Black Studies, City of Santa Barbara Parks & Recreation Department, Santa Barbara Jewish Federation/Jewish Community Relations Council, Santa Barbara NAACP, KCLU, Pro-Youth Coalition, County of Santa Barbara Human Relations Commission, Not in Our Town, Pacific Pride Foundation, La Casa de la Raza, Baha'i Faith, Latinos for Better Government, Women's Economic Ventures and the Santa Barbara Society for Jewish Secular Humanism. The group has been working diligently to bring the Henrietta Marie Exhibit to the Santa Barbara community in April/May 2002. The exhibit was at the Karpeles Museum in downtown Santa Barbara and all local schools were invited to participate. This is being done in conjunction with our conference on Slavery "Unequal Exchange: The Economic and Political Implications of the Slave Trade," to be held at UCSB in May 2002.
The outreach project, The Middle Passage Curriculum, described in Research Highlights, is the third element of this large partnership project between the UCSB Center for Black Studies and the local community. The project educates and heightens awareness about the long-standing impact of slavery and the middle passage on today's economy and political system. A number of undergraduates participate in our outreach project in the schools and the community.
The Center clearly has been successful in establishing a presence in the larger Santa Barbara Community. We see a need to do even more in years to come, especially ensuring more student participation at both the planning stage and the execution phase of those community activities.
The Center is mindful of, and alert to, opportunities to promote cooperative endeavors with a variety of campus and community organizations. In keeping with this goal, the Center responds to and supports a variety of activities such as Black Culture Week, KWANZA, Upward Bound, STEP, Black graduation, and many others. It is the campus component most able to respond to increasingly frequent calls for cooperative endeavors among campus entities, and between town and gown. Its history is rich in this exchange, including cooperative projects with the Center for Chicano Studies, the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Committee, and others.
G -- Donors
In addition to subscription revenue, the Center received donations in support of the Journal of Haitian Studies (JOHS). We also received donations to the Congress of Santa Barbara funds (KOSANBA).